Piano Guidance
Photo by Yan Krukov Pexels Logo Photo: Yan Krukov

Are there only 7 music notes?

In traditional Indian music, musical notes are called svaras and commonly represented using the seven notes, Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni.

en.wikipedia.org - Musical note - Wikipedia
Which is more expensive piano or violin?
Which is more expensive piano or violin?

Pianos have less overall maintenance costs Violin and piano are by far the most popular choices out there, but there's a lot of options out there.

Read More »
Why do I play piano better with my eyes closed?
Why do I play piano better with my eyes closed?

Start practicing your scales first with your eyes closed. This teaches you to trust your ears and your fingers instead of your eyes. The key thing...

Read More »

Sign used in musical notation, a pitched sound

In music, a note is the representation of a musical sound.

Notes can represent the pitch and duration of a sound in musical notation. A note can also represent a pitch class. Notes are the building blocks of much written music: discretizations of musical phenomena that facilitate performance, comprehension, and analysis. The term note can be used in both generic and specific senses: one might say either "the piece 'Happy Birthday to You' begins with two notes having the same pitch", or "the piece begins with two repetitions of the same note". In the former case, one uses note to refer to a specific musical event; in the latter, one uses the term to refer to a class of events sharing the same pitch. (See also: Key signature names and translations.)

A or La The symbol of the noteor

Names of some notes

Two notes with fundamental frequencies in a ratio equal to any integer power of two (e.g., half, twice, or four times) are perceived as very similar. Because of that, all notes with these kinds of relations can be grouped under the same pitch class. In European music theory, most countries use the solfège naming convention do–re–mi–fa–sol–la–si, including for instance Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Romania, most Latin American countries, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Russia, Arabic-speaking and Persian-speaking countries. However, in English- and Dutch-speaking regions, pitch classes are typically represented by the first seven letters of the Latin alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F and G). Several European countries, including Germany, adopt an almost identical notation, in which H is substituted for B (see below for details). Byzantium used the names Pa–Vu–Ga–Di–Ke–Zo–Ni (Πα–Βου–Γα–Δι–Κε–Ζω–Νη).[2] In traditional Indian music, musical notes are called svaras and commonly represented using the seven notes, Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni. The eighth note, or octave, is given the same name as the first, but has double its frequency (first harmonic). The name octave is also used to indicate the span between a note and another with double frequency. To differentiate two notes that have the same pitch class but fall into different octaves, the system of scientific pitch notation combines a letter name with an Arabic numeral designating a specific octave. For example, the now-standard tuning pitch for most Western music, 440 Hz, is named a′ or A 4 . There are two formal systems to define each note and octave, the Helmholtz pitch notation and the scientific pitch notation.

Every note, its frequency, and its other clef equivalent.

Accidentals [ edit ]

Letter names are modified by the accidentals. The sharp sign ♯ raises a note by a semitone or half-step, and a flat ♭ lowers it by the same amount. In modern tuning a half step has a frequency ratio of 12√2, approximately 1.0595. The accidentals are written after the note name: so, for example, F♯ represents F-sharp, B♭ is B-flat, and C♮ is C natural (or C). 12√ 2 Frequency vs position on treble clef . Each note shown has a frequency of the previous note multiplied by In musical notation, accidentals are placed before the note symbols. Systematic alterations to the seven lettered pitches in the scale can be indicated by placing the symbols in the key signature, which then apply implicitly to all occurrences of corresponding notes. Explicitly noted accidentals can be used to override this effect for the remainder of a bar. A special accidental, the natural symbol ♮, is used to indicate a pitch unmodified by the alterations in the key signature. Effects of key signature and local accidentals do not accumulate. If the key signature indicates G♯, a local flat before a G makes it G♭ (not G♮), though often this type of rare accidental is expressed as a natural, followed by a flat (♮♭) to make this clear. Likewise (and more commonly), a double sharp sign on a key signature with a single sharp ♯ indicates only a double sharp, not a triple sharp. Assuming enharmonicity, many accidentals will create equivalences between pitches that are written differently. For instance, raising the note B to B♯ is equal to the note C. Assuming all such equivalences, the complete chromatic scale adds five additional pitch classes to the original seven lettered notes for a total of 12 (the 13th note completing the octave), each separated by a half-step. Notes that belong to the diatonic scale relevant in the context are sometimes called diatonic notes; notes that do not meet that criterion are then sometimes called chromatic notes. Another style of notation, rarely used in English, uses the suffix "is" to indicate a sharp and "es" (only "s" after A and E) for a flat, e.g., Fis for F♯, Ges for G♭, Es for E♭. This system first arose in Germany and is used in almost all European countries whose main language is not English, Greek, or a Romance language (such as French, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and Romanian). In most countries using these suffixes, the letter H is used to represent what is B natural in English, the letter B is used instead of B♭, and Heses (i.e., H ) is used instead of B (although Bes and Heses both denote the English B ). Dutch-speakers in Belgium and the Netherlands use the same suffixes, but applied throughout to the notes A to G, so that B, B♭ and B have the same meaning as in English, although they are called B, Bes, and Beses instead of B, B flat and B double flat. Denmark also uses H, but uses Bes instead of Heses for B .

12-tone chromatic scale [ edit ]

The following chart lists the names used in different countries for the 12 notes of a chromatic scale built on C. The corresponding symbols are shown within parenthesis. Differences between German and English notation are highlighted in bold typeface. Although the English and Dutch names are different, the corresponding symbols are identical. Names of notes in various languages and countries Naming convention 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 English C C sharp

(C ♯ ) D D sharp

(D ♯ ) E F F sharp

(F ♯ ) G G sharp

(G ♯ ) A A sharp

(A ♯ ) B D flat

(D ♭ ) E flat

(E ♭ ) G flat

(G ♭ ) A flat

(A ♭ ) B flat

(B ♭ ) German[3]

(used in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden) C Cis

(C ♯ ) D Dis

(D ♯ ) E F Fis

(F ♯ ) G Gis

(G ♯ ) A Ais

(A ♯ ) H Des

(D ♭ ) Es

(E ♭ ) Ges

(G ♭ ) As

(A ♭ ) B Swedish compromise[4]

(Sweden) C Ciss

(C ♯ ) D Diss

(D ♯ ) E F Fiss

(F ♯ ) G Giss

(G ♯ ) A Aiss

(A ♯ ) H Dess

(D ♭ ) Ess

(E ♭ ) Gess

(G ♭ ) Ass

(A ♭ ) Bess

(B ♭ ) Dutch[3]

What is the hardest jump in ballet?
What is the hardest jump in ballet?

The Grand Jete is one of the most challenging jumps to perform and requires the dancer to continuously stretch to obtain flexibility. A skilled...

Read More »
Which room do burglars typically search first?
Which room do burglars typically search first?

Burglars Know Where to Find the Goods Hint: Your master bedroom is the first stop. There are many vulnerable spots in your home. Most people keep...

Read More »

(used in Netherlands, and sometimes in Scandinavia after the 1990s, and Indonesia) C Cis

(C ♯ ) D Dis

(D ♯ ) E F Fis

(F ♯ ) G Gis

(G ♯ ) A Ais

(A ♯ ) B Des

(D ♭ ) Es

(E ♭ ) Ges

(G ♭ ) As

(A ♭ ) Bes

(B ♭ ) Romance languages[5]

(used in Italy, France, Spain, Romania, Russia, Latin America, Greece, Israel, Turkey, Latvia and many other countries)

diesis/bemolle are Italian spelling do do diesis

(do ♯ ) re re diesis

(re ♯ ) mi fa fa diesis

(fa ♯ ) sol sol diesis

(sol ♯ ) la la diesis

(la ♯ ) si re bemolle

(re ♭ ) mi bemolle

(mi ♭ ) sol bemolle

(sol ♭ ) la bemolle

(la ♭ ) si bemolle

(si ♭ ) Byzantine[6] Ni Ni diesis Pa Pa diesis Vu Ga Ga diesis Di Di diesis Ke Ke diesis Zo Pa hyphesis Vu hyphesis Di hyphesis Ke hyphesis Zo hyphesis Japanese[7] Ha ( ハ ) Ei-ha

( 嬰ハ ) Ni ( ニ ) Ei-ni

( 嬰ニ ) Ho ( ホ ) He ( ヘ ) Ei-he

( 嬰へ ) To ( ト ) Ei-to

( 嬰ト ) I ( イ ) Ei-i

( 嬰イ ) Ro ( ロ ) Hen-ni

( 変ニ ) Hen-ho

( 変ホ ) Hen-to

( 変ト ) Hen-i

( 変イ ) Hen-ro

( 変ロ ) Indian (Hindustani)[8] Sa

( सा ) Re Komal

( रे॒ ) Re

( रे ) Ga Komal

( ग॒ ) Ga

( ग ) Ma

( म ) Ma Tivra

( म॑ ) Pa

( प ) Dha Komal

( ध॒ ) Dha

( ध ) Ni Komal

( नि॒ ) Ni

( नि ) Indian (Carnatic) Sa Shuddha Ri (R1) Chatushruti Ri (R2) Sadharana Ga (G2) Antara Ga (G3) Shuddha Ma (M1) Prati Ma (M2) Pa Shuddha Dha (D1) Chatushruti Dha (D2) Kaisika Ni (N2) Kakali Ni (N3) Shuddha Ga (G1) Shatshruti Ri (R3) Shuddha Ni (N1) Shatshruti Dha (D3) Indian (Bengali)[9] Sa

( সা ) Komôl Re

( ঋ ) Re

( রে ) Komôl Ga

( জ্ঞ ) Ga

( গ ) Ma

( ম ) Kôṛi Ma

( হ্ম ) Pa

( প ) Komôl Dha

( দ ) Dha

( ধ ) Komôl Ni

( ণ ) Ni

( নি )

Note designation in accordance with octave name [ edit ]

The table below shows each octave and the frequencies for every note of pitch class A. The traditional (Helmholtz) system centers on the great octave (with capital letters) and small octave (with lower case letters). Lower octaves are named "contra" (with primes before), higher ones "lined" (with primes after). Another system (scientific) suffixes a number (starting with 0, or sometimes −1). In this system A 4 is nowadays standardised at 440 Hz, lying in the octave containing notes from C 4 (middle C) to B 4 . The lowest note on most pianos is A 0 , the highest C 8 . The MIDI system for electronic musical instruments and computers uses a straight count starting with note 0 for C −1 at 8.1758 Hz up to note 127 for G 9 at 12,544 Hz.

Names of octaves Octave naming systems Frequency

of A (Hz) Traditional Helmholtz Scientific MIDI subsubcontra C͵͵͵ – B͵͵͵ C −1 – B −1 0 0 – 11 13.75 sub-contra C͵͵ – B͵͵ C 0 – B 0 12 – 23 27.5 0 contra C͵ – B͵ C 1 – B 1 24 – 35 55 .00 great C – B C 2 – B 2 36 – 47 110 .00 small c – b C 3 – B 3 48 – 59 220 .00 one-lined c′ – b′ C 4 – B 4 60 – 71 440 .00 two-lined c′′ – b′′ C 5 – B 5 72 – 83 880 .00 three-lined c′′′ – b′′′ C 6 – B 6 84 – 95 1760 .00 four-lined c′′′′ – b′′′′ C 7 – B 7 0 96 – 107 3520 .00 five-lined c′′′′′ – b′′′′′ C 8 – B 8 108 – 119 7040 .00 six-lined c′′′′′′ – b′′′′′′ C 9 – B 9 120 – 127

C to G 14080 .00

Written notes [ edit ]

A written note can also have a note value, a code that determines the note's relative duration. In order of halving duration, they are: double note (breve); whole note (semibreve); half note (minim); quarter note (crotchet); eighth note (quaver); sixteenth note (semiquaver); thirty-second note (demisemiquaver), sixty-fourth note (hemidemisemiquaver), and hundred twenty-eighth note. In a score, each note is assigned a specific vertical position on a staff position (a line or space) on the staff, as determined by the clef. Each line or space is assigned a note name. These names are memorized by musicians and allow them to know at a glance the proper pitch to play on their instruments. Audio playback is not supported in your browser. You can download the audio file The staff above shows the notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C and then in reverse order, with no key signature or accidentals.

Note frequency (in hertz) [ edit ]

Music can be composed of notes at any arbitrary physical frequency. Since the physical causes of music are vibrations, they are often measured in hertz (Hz), with 1 Hz meaning one vibration per second. For historical and other reasons, especially in Western music, only twelve notes of fixed frequencies are used. These fixed frequencies are mathematically related to each other, and are defined around the central note, A 4 . The current "standard pitch" or modern "concert pitch" for this note is 440 Hz, although this varies in actual practice (see History of pitch standards). The note-naming convention specifies a letter, any accidentals, and an octave number. Each note is an integer number of half-steps away from concert A (A 4 ). Let this distance be denoted n . If the note is above A 4 , then n is positive; if it is below A 4 , then n is negative. The frequency of the note ( f ) (assuming equal temperament) is then: f = 2 n 12 × 440 Hz {displaystyle f=2^{frac {n}{12}} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}},} For example, one can find the frequency of C 5 , the first C above A 4 . There are 3 half-steps between A 4 and C 5 (A 4 → A♯ 4 → B 4 → C 5 ), and the note is above A 4 , so n = 3. The note's frequency is: f = 2 3 12 × 440 Hz ≈ 523.2 Hz {displaystyle f=2^{frac {3}{12}} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}}approx 523.2{ ext{ Hz}}} To find the frequency of a note below A 4 , the value of n is negative. For example, the F below A 4 is F 4 . There are 4 half-steps (A 4 → A♭ 4 → G 4 → G♭ 4 → F 4 ), and the note is below A 4 , so n = −4. The note's frequency is: f = 2 − 4 12 × 440 Hz ≈ 349.2 Hz {displaystyle f=2^{-{frac {4}{12}}} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}}approx 349.2{ ext{ Hz}}}

Who is the most forgotten Beatle?
Who is the most forgotten Beatle?

Pete Best - the forgotten Beatle He played drums with The Beatles for two years before he was thrown out of the band, never to have contact with...

Read More »
Is a headphone jack the same as an AUX jack?
Is a headphone jack the same as an AUX jack?

The construction of the aux connector and the headphone jack is often the same: 3.5mm (1/8″) TRS. However, the “auxiliary connector” is universal...

Read More »
Join almost HALF A MILLION Happy Students Worldwide
Join almost HALF A MILLION Happy Students Worldwide

Pianoforall is one of the most popular online piano courses online and has helped over 450,000 students around the world achieve their dream of playing beautiful piano for over a decade.

Learn More »

Finally, it can be seen from this formula that octaves automatically yield powers of two times the original frequency, since n is a multiple of 12 (12 k , where k is the number of octaves up or down), and so the formula reduces to: f = 2 12 k 12 × 440 Hz = 2 k × 440 Hz {displaystyle f=2^{frac {12k}{12}} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}}=2^{k} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}}} yielding a factor of 2. In fact, this is the means by which this formula is derived, combined with the notion of equally-spaced intervals. The distance of an equally tempered semitone is divided into 100 cents. So 1200 cents are equal to one octave – a frequency ratio of 2:1. This means that a cent is precisely equal to 1200√2, which is approximately 1.000578. For use with the MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) standard, a frequency mapping is defined by: p = 69 + 12 × log 2 ⁡ f 440 Hz {displaystyle p=69+12 imes log _{2}{frac {f}{440{ ext{ Hz}}}}} where p is the MIDI note number (and 69 is the number of semitones between C −1 (note 0) and A 4 ). And in the opposite direction, to obtain the frequency from a MIDI note p , the formula is defined as: f = 2 p − 69 12 × 440 Hz {displaystyle f=2^{frac {p-69}{12}} imes 440{ ext{ Hz}}} For notes in an A440 equal temperament, this formula delivers the standard MIDI note number ( p ). Any other frequencies fill the space between the whole numbers evenly. This lets MIDI instruments be tuned accurately in any microtuning scale, including non-western traditional tunings.

Note names and their history [ edit ]

Music notation systems have used letters of the alphabet for centuries. The 6th-century philosopher Boethius is known to have used the first fourteen letters of the classical Latin alphabet (the letter J did not exist until the 16th century), A B C D E F G H I K L M N O, to signify the notes of the two-octave range that was in use at the time[10] and in modern scientific pitch notation are represented as A 2 B 2 C 3 D 3 E 3 F 3 G 3 A 3 B 3 C 4 D 4 E 4 F 4 G 4 . Though it is not known whether this was his devising or common usage at the time, this is nonetheless called Boethian notation. Although Boethius is the first author known to use this nomenclature in the literature, Ptolemy wrote of the two-octave range five centuries before, calling it the perfect system or complete system – as opposed to other, smaller-range note systems that did not contain all possible species of octave (i.e., the seven octaves starting from A, B, C, D, E, F, and G). Following this, the range (or compass) of used notes was extended to three octaves, and the system of repeating letters A–G in each octave was introduced, these being written as lower-case for the second octave (a–g) and double lower-case letters for the third (aa–gg). When the range was extended down by one note, to a G, that note was denoted using the Greek letter gamma (Γ). (It is from this that the French word for scale, gamme derives, and the English word gamut, from "Gamma-Ut", the lowest note in Medieval music notation.) The remaining five notes of the chromatic scale (the black keys on a piano keyboard) were added gradually; the first being B♭, since B was flattened in certain modes to avoid the dissonant tritone interval. This change was not always shown in notation, but when written, B♭ (B-flat) was written as a Latin, round "b", and B♮ (B-natural) a Gothic script (known as Blackletter) or "hard-edged" b. These evolved into the modern flat (♭) and natural (♮) symbols respectively. The sharp symbol arose from a barred b, called the "cancelled b". In parts of Europe, including Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Norway, Denmark, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Finland and Iceland (and Sweden before the 1990s), the Gothic b transformed into the letter H (possibly for hart, German for hard, or just because the Gothic b resembled an H). Therefore, in German music notation, H is used instead of B♮ (B-natural), and B instead of B♭ (B-flat). Occasionally, music written in German for international use will use H for B-natural and Bb for B-flat (with a modern-script lower-case b instead of a flat sign). Since a Bes or B♭ in Northern Europe (i.e., a B elsewhere) is both rare and unorthodox (more likely to be expressed as Heses), it is generally clear what this notation means. In Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian, Greek, Albanian, Russian, Mongolian, Flemish, Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Turkish and Vietnamese the note names are do–re–mi–fa–sol–la–si rather than C–D–E–F–G–A–B. These names follow the original names reputedly given by Guido d'Arezzo, who had taken them from the first syllables of the first six musical phrases of a Gregorian chant melody "Ut queant laxis", which began on the appropriate scale degrees. These became the basis of the solfège system. For ease of singing, the name ut was largely replaced by do (most likely from the beginning of Dominus, Lord), though ut is still used in some places. It was the Italian musicologist and humanist Giovanni Battista Doni (1595–1647) who successfully proposed to rename the note "Ut" to "Do". For the seventh degree, the name si (from Sancte Iohannes, St. John, to whom the hymn is dedicated), though in some regions the seventh is named ti. The two notation systems most commonly used today are the Helmholtz pitch notation system and the scientific pitch notation system. As shown in the table above, they both include several octaves, each starting from C rather than A. The reason is that the most commonly used scale in Western music is the major scale, and the sequence C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C (the C major scale) is the simplest example of a major scale. Indeed, it is the only major scale that can be obtained using natural notes (the white keys on the piano keyboard) and is typically the first musical scale taught in music schools. In a newly developed system, primarily in use in the United States, notes of scales become independent of music notation. In this system the natural symbols C–D–E–F–G–A–B refer to the absolute notes, while the names do–re–mi–fa–so–la–ti are relativized and show only the relationship between pitches, where do is the name of the base pitch of the scale (the tonic), re is the name of the second degree, etc. The idea of this so-called "movable do," first suggested by John Curwen in the 19th century, was fully developed and involved into a whole educational system by Zoltán Kodály in the middle of the 20th century, which system is known as the Kodály method or Kodály concept.

See also [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

Bibliography [ edit ]

en.wikipedia.org - Musical note - Wikipedia
What is the hardest musical to sing?
What is the hardest musical to sing?

Defying Gravity, Wicked. And I Am Telling You (I'm Not Going), Dreamgirls. The Phantom of the Opera. (Not) Getting Married Today, Company. Pity the...

Read More »
What are the main 3 chords known as?
What are the main 3 chords known as?

The I (tonic), IV (subdominant) and V (dominant) chords (primary triads) together encompass all seven tones of the tonic's major scale. These three...

Read More »
What is the most listened to song?
What is the most listened to song?

Shape of You"" by Ed Sheeran is the most streamed song on Spotify with over 3.2 billion streams.

Read More »
What percentage of the population can play music by ear?
What percentage of the population can play music by ear?

However, perfect pitch may actually be considerably more common: One recent review suggested that 4% of music students have the ability, and people...

Read More »